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1 Beiträge - Sieh dir Instagram-Fotos und Videos von #'southcentralasian' an. BBraun Aesculap, Conmed Corporation, for MEA, subcontinent region and most recently with Novadaq (acquired by Stryker) for South Central Asian markets. An increase in the incidence of oral cancer has been observed in South-central Asian countries. The objective was to systematically review the. Executive Director Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs and Bureau of South Central Asian Affairs. Department of State. September – August 3 Jahre. U.S. Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey , Mai , Internetquelle: zumbacenter.se​zumbacenter.se

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BBraun Aesculap, Conmed Corporation, for MEA, subcontinent region and most recently with Novadaq (acquired by Stryker) for South Central Asian markets. Refugee Survey – Bangladesh, Mai zumbacenter.se​wrs04/country_updates/south_central_asia/zumbacenter.se Get your Afghani food recipes here and enjoy making your delicious South Central Asian food at home. Try it! Nadia Habib-CoelhoRecipes: Afghani and.

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The total area can be estimated at 4. In , the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia.

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In , a process of unification was started by Ranjit Singh virtually to establish an empire Before his death in Rajit Singh's authority over all the conquered and subordinated territories between the river Satlej and the mountain ranges of Ladakh, Karakoram, Hindukush and Sulaiman was recognized.

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Places adjacent to South Asia. South Asia. Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan all have gold reserves and Kazakhstan has the world's largest uranium reserves.

In January , the Minister of Agriculture announced the government's intention to reduce the acreage of land cultivated by cotton to make way for other crops.

Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are major cotton exporters themselves, ranking fifth and ninth respectively worldwide for volume in Although both exports and imports have grown significantly over the past decade, Central Asian republics countries remain vulnerable to economic shocks, owing to their reliance on exports of raw materials, a restricted circle of trading partners and a negligible manufacturing capacity.

Kyrgyzstan has the added disadvantage of being considered resource poor, although it does have ample water. Most of its electricity is generated by hydropower.

The Kyrgyz economy was shaken by a series of shocks between and In April , President Kurmanbek Bakiyev was deposed by a popular uprising, with former minister of foreign affairs Roza Otunbayeva assuring the interim presidency until the election of Almazbek Atambayev in November According to the World Bank, Kazakhstan leads the Central Asian region in terms of foreign direct investments.

In terms of the economic influence of big powers, China is viewed as one of the key economic players in Central Asia, especially after Beijing launched its grand development strategy known as the Belt and Road Initiative BRI in Bolstered by strong economic growth in all but Kyrgyzstan , national development strategies are fostering new high-tech industries, pooling resources and orienting the economy towards export markets.

Many national research institutions established during the Soviet era have since become obsolete with the development of new technologies and changing national priorities.

This has led countries to reduce the number of national research institutions since by grouping existing institutions to create research hubs.

In Uzbekistan , more than 10 institutions of the Academy of Sciences have been reorganized, following the issuance of a decree by the Cabinet of Ministers in February The aim is to orient academic research towards problem-solving and ensure continuity between basic and applied research.

For example, the Mathematics and Information Technology Research Institute has been subsumed under the National University of Uzbekistan and the Institute for Comprehensive Research on Regional Problems of Samarkand has been transformed into a problem-solving laboratory on environmental issues within Samarkand State University.

Other research institutions have remained attached to the Uzbek Academy of Sciences , such as the Centre of Genomics and Bioinformatics. Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan are also building technology parks as part of their drive to modernize infrastructure.

In , construction began of a technopark in the village of Bikrova near Ashgabat, the Turkmen capital. It will combine research, education, industrial facilities, business incubators and exhibition centres.

The technopark will house research on alternative energy sources sun, wind and the assimilation of nanotechnologies. Between and , technological parks were set up in the east, south and north Kazakhstan oblasts administrative units and in the capital, Nur-Sultan.

The centre supports research projects in technology marketing, intellectual property protection, technology licensing contracts and start-ups.

The centre plans to conduct a technology audit in Kazakhstan and to review the legal framework regulating the commercialization of research results and technology.

Countries are seeking to augment the efficiency of traditional extractive sectors but also to make greater use of information and communication technologies and other modern technologies, such as solar energy, to develop the business sector, education and research.

Three universities have been set up since to foster competence in strategic economic areas: Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan first intake in , an international research university, Inha University in Uzbekistan first intake in , specializing in information and communication technologies, and the International Oil and Gas University in Turkmenistan founded in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are both generalizing the teaching of foreign languages at school, in order to facilitate international ties.

Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have both adopted the three-tier bachelor's, master's and PhD degree system, in and respectively, which is gradually replacing the Soviet system of Candidates and Doctors of Science.

In , Kazakhstan became the only Central Asian member of the Bologna Process , which seeks to harmonize higher education systems in order to create a European Higher Education Area.

The Central Asian republics' ambition of developing the business sector, education and research is being hampered by chronic low investment in research and development.

Over the decade to , the region's investment in research and development hovered around 0. Uzbekistan broke with this trend in by raising its own research intensity to 0.

Kazakhstan is the only country where the business enterprise and private non-profit sectors make any significant contribution to research and development — but research intensity overall is low in Kazakhstan: just 0.

Moreover, few industrial enterprises conduct research in Kazakhstan. Only one in eight Enterprises prefer to purchase technological solutions that are already embodied in imported machinery and equipment.

Nevertheless, there appears to be a growing demand for the products of research, since enterprises spent 4. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan count the highest researcher density in Central Asia.

The number of researchers per million population is close to the world average 1, in in Kazakhstan 1, and higher than the world average in Uzbekistan 1, Kazakhstan is the only Central Asian country where the business enterprise and private non-profit sectors make any significant contribution to research and development.

With most Uzbek university researchers nearing retirement, this imbalance imperils Uzbekistan's research future. Almost all holders of a Candidate of Science, Doctor of Science or PhD are more than 40 years old and half are aged over 60; more than one in three researchers Although policies are in place to give Tajik women equal rights and opportunities, these are underfunded and poorly understood.

Turkmenistan has offered a state guarantee of equality for women since a law adopted in but the lack of available data makes it impossible to draw any conclusions as to the law's impact on research.

As for Turkmenistan, it does not make data available on higher education, research expenditure or researchers.

Table: PhDs obtained in science and engineering in Central Asia, or closest year. Note: PhD graduates in science cover life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and statistics, and computing; PhDs in engineering also cover manufacturing and construction.

Data are unavailable for Turkmenistan. Five Kazakh patents were registered at the US Patent and Trademark Office between and , compared to three for Uzbek inventors and none at all for the other three Central Asian republics, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Kazakhstan is Central Asia's main trader in high-tech products. The five Central Asian republics belong to several international bodies, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe , the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

The landlocked Central Asian republics are conscious of the need to co-operate in order to maintain and develop their transport networks and energy, communication and irrigation systems.

Only Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan border the Caspian Sea and none of the republics has direct access to an ocean, complicating the transportation of hydrocarbons, in particular, to world markets.

Kazakhstan is also one of the three founding members of the Eurasian Economic Union in , along with Belarus and the Russian Federation.

Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have since joined this body. As co-operation among the member states in science and technology is already considerable and well-codified in legal texts, the Eurasian Economic Union is expected to have a limited additional impact on co-operation among public laboratories or academia but it should encourage business ties and scientific mobility, since it includes provision for the free circulation of labour and unified patent regulations.

Kazakhstan and Tajikistan participated in the Innovative Biotechnologies Programme — launched by the Eurasian Economic Community , the predecessor of the Eurasian Economic Union , The programme also involved Belarus and the Russian Federation.

Within this programme, prizes were awarded at an annual bio-industry exhibition and conference. In , 86 Russian organizations participated, plus three from Belarus, one from Kazakhstan and three from Tajikistan, as well as two scientific research groups from Germany.

The first few approved projects focused on supercomputers, space technologies, medicine, petroleum recycling, nanotechnologies and the ecological use of natural resources.

Once these initial projects have spawned viable commercial products, the venture company plans to reinvest the profits in new projects.

This venture company is not a purely economic structure; it has also been designed to promote a common economic space among the three participating countries.

The aim of this project is to encourage Central Asian countries to participate in research projects within Horizon , the European Union's eighth research and innovation funding programme.

The focus of this research projects is on three societal challenges considered as being of mutual interest to both the European Union and Central Asia, namely: climate change, energy and health.

Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan have been members of the World Trade Organization since , and respectively.

Of the regions of Asia, only North Asia has fewer people. It has a population density of 9 people per km 2 , vastly less than the Russian , as well as being spoken by around six million ethnic Russians and Ukrainians of Central Asia, [49] is the de facto lingua franca throughout the former Soviet Central Asian Republics.

The languages of the majority of the inhabitants of the former Soviet Central Asian Republics belong to the Turkic language group.

Turkmen , is mainly spoken in Turkmenistan , and as a minority language in Afghanistan , Russia , Iran and Turkey.

Kazakh and Kyrgyz are related languages of the Kypchak group of Turkic languages and are spoken throughout Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , and as a minority language in Tajikistan , Afghanistan and Xinjiang.

The Turkic languages may belong to a larger, but controversial, Altaic language family, which includes Mongolian.

Middle Iranian languages were once spoken throughout Central Asia, such as the once prominent Sogdian , Khwarezmian , Bactrian and Scythian , which are now extinct and belonged to the Eastern Iranian family.

Tocharian , another Indo-European language group, which was once predominant in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, is now extinct.

Other language groups include the Tibetic languages , spoken by around six million people across the Tibetan Plateau and into Qinghai , Sichuan , Ladakh and Baltistan , and the Nuristani languages of northeastern Afghanistan.

Dardic languages , such as Shina , Kashmiri , Pashayi and Khowar , are also spoken in eastern Afghanistan, the Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan and the disputed territory of Kashmir.

Korean is spoken by the Koryo-saram minority, mainly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Islam is the religion most common in the Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan , Xinjiang and the peripheral western regions, such as Bashkortostan.

Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were the major faiths in Central Asia prior to the arrival of Islam. Zoroastrian influence is still felt today in such celebrations as Nowruz , held in all five of the Central Asian states.

Buddhism was a prominent religion in Central Asia prior to the arrival of Islam, and the transmission of Buddhism along the Silk Road eventually brought the religion to China.

The Bukharan Jews were once a sizable community in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, but nearly all have emigrated since the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

In Siberia, shaministic practices persist, including forms of divination such as Kumalak. Contact and migration with Han people from China has brought Confucianism , Daoism , Mahayana Buddhism , and other Chinese folk beliefs into the region.

Central Asia has long been a strategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass.

The region itself never held a dominant stationary population nor was able to make use of natural resources. Thus, it has rarely throughout history become the seat of power for an empire or influential state.

Central Asia has been divided, redivided, conquered out of existence, and fragmented time and time again. Central Asia has served more as the battleground for outside powers than as a power in its own right.

Central Asia had both the advantage and disadvantage of a central location between four historical seats of power. From its central location, it has access to trade routes to and from all the regional powers.

On the other hand, it has been continuously vulnerable to attack from all sides throughout its history, resulting in political fragmentation or outright power vacuum, as it is successively dominated.

In the post—Cold War era, Central Asia is an ethnic cauldron, prone to instability and conflicts, without a sense of national identity, but rather a mess of historical cultural influences, tribal and clan loyalties, and religious fervor.

The Turkic Khaganate had special policy against Chinese assimilation policy. The region, along with Russia, is also part of "the great pivot" as per the Heartland Theory of Halford Mackinder , which says that the power which controls Central Asia—richly endowed with natural resources—shall ultimately be the "empire of the world".

In the context of the United States' War on Terror , Central Asia has once again become the center of geostrategic calculations. Pakistan's status has been upgraded by the U.

Afghanistan, which had served as a haven and source of support for Al-Qaeda under the protection of Mullah Omar and the Taliban , was the target of a U.

Western governments have accused Russia, China and the former Soviet republics of justifying the suppression of separatist movements, and the associated ethnics and religion with the War on Terror.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region of the Asian continent. Main article: History of Central Asia. See also: Soviet Central Asia.

See also: Science and technology in Kazakhstan , Science and technology in Kyrgyzstan , Science and technology in Tajikistan , Science and technology in Turkmenistan , and Science and technology in Uzbekistan.

Main article: Demographics of Central Asia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Geostrategy in Central Asia. Largest cities or towns in Central Asia [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71].

Geography portal Asia portal. Word Spy. Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 14 November National Identities. In Central Asia the collision of modernity and tradition led all but the most deracinated of the intellectuals - clerics to seek salvation in reconstituted variants of traditional identities rather than succumb to the modern European idea of nationalism.

The inability of the elites to form a united front, as demonstrated in the numerous declarations of autonomy by different authorities during the Russian civil war, paved the way, in the early s for the Soviet re-conquest of the Central Asia in the early s.

Edmund Bosworth: "In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama of Ferdowsi is regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur.

The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan".

Turan thus became both an ethnic and a diareeah term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians.

Asimov and C. Multiple History Series. Paris: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Retrieved on 29 July Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Retrieved on Statistika qo'mitasi.

Retrieved Asie centrale in French. Paris, Gide. Humboldt University of Berlin. History of civilizations of Central Asia.

Paris: Unesco. The Travels of Marco Polo. Frye: Review by Bernadette Andrea". Middle East Studies Association Bulletin.

The Washington Times. News World Communications. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 20 August Touraj Atabaki, Sanjyot Mehendale Economist Intelligence Unit.

The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 March Central Asia. Cheung, Fanny; Hong, Ying-yi eds. Countries in the Black Sea basin.

Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 26 September Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 24 September BBC News.

Springer, Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 January Saimaddinov, S. Kholmatova, and S. A World of Science. Asia Major. Mehmet Akif Okur Journal of Turkish World Studies.

XIV 2 : 73— To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use.

Central Asia at Wikipedia's sister projects. Regions of Asia.

Refugee Survey – Bangladesh, Mai zumbacenter.se​wrs04/country_updates/south_central_asia/zumbacenter.se Pashto (/ˈpʌʃtoʊ/, rarely /ˈpæʃtoʊ/, Pashto: پښتو‎ Pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː]), sometimes spelled Pushtu or Pushto, is the South-Central Asian language of the​. Harry the BooneSome South/Central Asian Dress and Weaponry Saber, 19th century; Ottoman period Turkish Steel, gold, diamonds, emeralds, · Messer Und. 4,0 von 5 Sternen Excellent study of a crucial subject in South/ Central Asian history, which continues to haunt us today. Rezension aus den Vereinigten Staaten. Get your Afghani food recipes here and enjoy making your delicious South Central Asian food at home. Try it! Nadia Habib-CoelhoRecipes: Afghani and.

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The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts. The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts.

The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure, but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different.

English, with British spelling, is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia.

In , South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus , Jains and Sikhs , [14] about million Muslims , [14] as well as over 25 million Buddhists and 35 million Christians.

Indian religions are the religions that originated in the India; namely Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism. Later Sindh , Balochistan , and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia.

The population of South Asia is about 1. South Asia is home to some of the most populated cities in the world. Dhaka , Delhi , Mumbai , Karachi and Lahore are some of the world's largest megacities.

It is the fastest-growing major economy in the world and one of the world's fastest registering a growth of 7. It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia.

It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and It is also listed among the Next Eleven countries.

It is also one of the fastest-growing middle-income countries. Next is Sri Lanka , which has the 2nd highest GDP per capita and the 4th largest economy in the region.

According to a World Bank report in , driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices, from the last quarter of South Asia became the fastest-growing region in the world [].

One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region, complicating any attempt to compare between countries.

Only sub-Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning. Two-thirds of these children were in school, sitting in classrooms.

Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathmatics.

While over half of the students complete secondary school with acquiring requisite skills. In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination.

While by India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems, Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system, and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system.

But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands, including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system.

The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools.

Children's education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services.

The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale.

According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region, [] while UNESCO estimated in that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education.

With about 21 million students in universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in , accounting for 86 percent of all higher level students in South Asia.

Bangladesh two million and Pakistan 1. In Nepal thousand and Sri Lanka thousand the numbers were much smaller.

Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about students in higher education in The gross enrolment ratio in ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.

Their attacks on immunization teams have claimed 78 lives since December Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2.

India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between and , around million. As of , The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.

The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility, mortality, productivity, and economic growth.

In , approximately million people in the region were malnourished. In India, the malnourished comprise just over 15 percent of the population.

While the number of malnourished people in the neighborhood has shown a decline over the last 25 years, the number of under-nourished in Pakistan displays an upward trend.

There were Approximately The report stated, "the low status of women in South Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinants of high prevalence of underweight children in the region".

Corruption and the lack of initiative on the part of the government has been one of the major problems associated with nutrition in India.

Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention. The report mentioned that although there has been a reduction in malnutrition due to the Green Revolution in South Asia, there is concern that South Asia has "inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children".

India is a secular federative parliamentary republic with premier as head of government. With most populous functional democracy in world [] and world's longest written constitution, [] [] [] India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in with no regime change except that by a democratic election.

India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer establishments. Since the formation of its republic abolishing British law , it has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.

It has a multi-party system in its internal regional politics [] whereas alternative transfer of powers to alliances of Indian left-wing and right-wing political parties in national government provide it with characteristics of a two-party state.

Foundation of Pakistan lies in Pakistan movement started in colonial India based on Islamic nationalism. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world's first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in Pakistan's governance is one of the most conflicted in the world.

The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan has become a concern for the South Asian region. Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers , none has been able to complete a full term in office.

Pakistan's governance is one of the most conflicted in the region. The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region.

In Nepal , the government has struggled to come in the side of democracy, and it only showed signs in the recent past, basically in the 21st century, to support the democratic system.

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic. Law of Bangladesh defines it as both Islamic [] as well as secular. Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy.

Although Bangladesh's legal code is secular , more citizens are embracing a conservative version of Islam , with some pushing for sharia law , analysts say.

Experts say that the rise in conservatism reflects the influence of foreign-financed Islamic charities and the more austere version of Islam brought home by migrant workers in Persian Gulf countries.

Afghanistan has been a unitary presidential Islamic republic since Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions, civil wars, revolutions and terrorist groups.

Persisting instability for decades have left country's economy stagnated and torn and Afghanistan remains one of most poor and least developed countries on the planet, leading to the influx of Afghan refugees to neighboring countries like Iran.

The unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic of Sri Lanka is oldest sustained democracy in Asia. Tensions between Sinhalese and Tamils led to Sri Lankan civil war that undermined the country's stability for more than two and a half decades.

The political situation in Sri Lanka has been dominated by an increasingly assertive Sinhalese nationalism, and the emergence of a Tamil separatist movement under LTTE , which was suppressed in May Nepal was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in The country has been ranked among world's poorest in terms of GDP per capita but has made considerable progress in development indicators outpacing many other South Asian states.

Bhutan is a Buddhist state with a constitutional monarchy. The country has been ranked as the least corrupt and peaceful with most economic freedom in the region in Myanmar 's politics is dominated by a military Junta , which has sidelined the democratic forces led by Aung San Suu Kyi.

Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion. India has been dominant geopolitical power in the region [] [] [] and alone accounts for most part of the landmass, population, economy and military expenditure in the region.

Bangladesh and Pakistan are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics.

Partition of India in , subsequent violence and territorial disputes left relations between India and Pakistan sour and very hostile [] and various confrontations and wars which largely shaped the politics of the region and led to the creation of Bangladesh.

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in accelerated efforts to form a union to restrengthen deteriorating regional security. South Asia continues to remain least integrated region in the world.

Populism is a general characteristic of internal politics of South Asian nations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from South-central Asia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 October Southern region of Asia. Official languages.

Khasi Santali. Ja Basawa. Turkmen Uzbek. Maldives Pakistan. India Sri Lanka. Bangladesh Bhutan. See also: Indology. Further information: War in Afghanistan —present and Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts.

Main article: Indian plate. Af Tropical rainforest. Am Tropical monsoon. BWh Hot desert. BWk Cold desert.

BSh Hot semi arid. BSk Cold semi arid. Csa Mediterranean , dry, hot summer. Cfa Subtropical , humid. Cwa Subtropical , humid summer, dry winter.

Cwb Subtropical highland , dry winter. Dsa Continental , hot summer. Dsb Continental , warm summer. Dwb Continental , dry winter.

Dwc Continental Subarctic , dry winter. See also: Exclusive economic zone and Indian Ocean. Main article: Languages of South Asia.

See also: South Asian ethnic groups. See also: List of legislatures in South Asia and List of countries by system of government.

Asia portal. Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c. The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred, for instance, could very likely have very great antiquity.

The worship of goddesses, too, a part of Hinduism today, maybe a feature that originated in the Neolithic. United Nations. Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 10 December Regional and Country Profiles South Asia.

Institute of Development Studies. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 28 February United Nations Statistics Division. Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 31 January Institute of Development Studies Archived from the original on 15 June Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 5 November Archived from the original on 1 June Archived from the original on 17 November BBC News.

Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 5 September The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.

Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 17 December South Asian Regional Development Gateway.

Archived from the original on 21 November Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. The total area can be estimated at 4. In , the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia.

The Diplomat. Retrieved 7 February Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 December South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today.

Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 13 March Archived from the original on 4 May Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 25 August Quote: "The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories by the United Nations.

Cooperation and Conflict in South Asia. Technical Publications. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 12 August Kluwer Law International.

Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 11 December Palgrave Macmillan. It regards itself as a link between Central Asia and South Asia.

Nuclear Nonproliferation. Infobase Publishing. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. From the midth century until almost the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union , both Slavic -majority countries and the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and , Ukrainians.

Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan pop. One of the geographers that mentioned Central Asia as a distinct region of the world for the modern world was in by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt.

The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Historically built political geography and culture are two significant parameters widely used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of Central Asia.

Von Humboldt's legacy on Central Asia is still seen in the present, He has a university named after himself which provides the "Central Asian Studies" Based on the wider Central Asia definition.

Khanykoff himself preferred a physical definition of the region which is all countries located in this region being landlocked from water. The latter definition includes Afghanistan and East Turkestan.

The most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union , which defined Middle Asia as consisting solely of Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan , hence omitting Kazakhstan.

This definition was also often used outside the USSR during this period. Soon after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets.

Since then, this has become the most common definition of Central Asia. An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, and in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic , Eastern Iranian , or Mongolian peoples.

Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may also be included. The Tibetans and Ladakhi are also included.

Most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan.

Central Asia is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains Tian Shan , vast deserts Kyzyl Kum , Taklamakan , and especially treeless, grassy steppes.

The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe.

Much of the land of Central Asia is too dry or too rugged for farming. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities.

Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash , both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that also includes the Caspian Sea.

Both of these bodies of water have shrunk significantly in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes.

Water is an extremely valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes.

Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia. The northern half of Central Asia Kazakhstan is the middle part of the Eurasian steppe.

Westward the Kazakh steppe merges into the Russian-Ukrainian steppe and eastward into the steppes and deserts of Dzungaria and Mongolia.

Southward the land becomes increasingly dry and the nomadic population increasingly thin. The south supports areas of dense population and cities wherever irrigation is possible.

The main irrigated areas are along the eastern mountains, along the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers and along the north flank of the Kopet Dagh near the Persian border.

Two projections of the Tian Shan create three "bays" along the eastern mountains. The largest, in the north, is eastern Kazakhstan, traditionally called Jetysu or Semirechye which contains Lake Balkhash.

In the center is the small but densely-populated Ferghana valley. In the south is Bactria , later called Tocharistan, which is bounded on the south by the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan.

Both flow northwest into the Aral Sea. North of the Oxus is the less-famous but equally important Zarafshan River which waters the great trading cities of Bokhara and Samarkand.

The other great commercial city was Tashkent northwest of the mouth of the Ferghana valley. The land immediately north of the Oxus was called Transoxiana and also Sogdia , especially when referring to the Sogdian merchants who dominated the silk road trade.

To the east, Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin were united into the Chinese province of Xinjiang about Caravans from China usually went along the north or south side of the Tarim basin and joined at Kashgar before crossing the mountains northwest to Ferghana or southwest to Bactria.

A minor branch of the silk road went north of the Tian Shan through Dzungaria and Zhetysu before turning southwest near Tashkent.

Nomadic migrations usually moved from Mongolia through Dzungaria before turning southwest to conquer the settled lands or continuing west toward Europe.

Khorasan meant approximately northeast Persia and northern Afghanistan. Margiana was the region around Merv. To the southwest, across the Kopet Dagh, lies Persia.

From here Persian and Islamic civilization penetrated Central Asia and dominated its high culture until the Russian conquest. In the southeast is the route to India.

In early times Buddhism spread north and throughout much of history warrior kings and tribes would move southeast to establish their rule in northern India.

Most nomadic conquerors entered from the northeast. After western civilization in its Russian and Soviet form penetrated from the northwest. Because Central Asia is not buffered by a large body of water, temperature fluctuations are often severe, excluding the hot, sunny summer months.

In most areas the climate is dry and continental, with hot summers and cool to cold winters, with occasional snowfall. Outside high-elevation areas, the climate is mostly semi-arid to arid.

In lower elevations, summers are hot with blazing sunshine. Average monthly precipitation is extremely low from July to September, rises in autumn October and November and is highest in March or April, followed by swift drying in May and June.

Winds can be strong, producing dust storms sometimes, especially toward the end of the dry season in September and October. Specific cities that exemplify Central Asian climate patterns include Tashkent and Samarkand , Uzbekistan, Ashgabat , Turkmenistan, and Dushanbe , Tajikistan, the last of these representing one of the wettest climates in Central Asia, with an average annual precipitation of over 22 inches.

Biogeographically, Central Asia is part of the Palearctic realm. The largest biome in Central Asia is the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

Central Asia also contains the montane grasslands and shrublands , deserts and xeric shrublands and temperate coniferous forests biomes.

Although, during the golden age of Orientalism the place of Central Asia in the world history was marginalized, contemporary historiography has rediscovered the "centrality" of the Central Asia.

The aridness of the region made agriculture difficult, and its distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region; instead, the area was for millennia dominated by the nomadic horse peoples of the steppe.

Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were long marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare , and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, limited only by their lack of internal unity.

Any internal unity that was achieved was most probably due to the influence of the Silk Road , which traveled along Central Asia.

Periodically, great leaders or changing conditions would organize several tribes into one force and create an almost unstoppable power. During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, southern Central Asia was inhabited predominantly by speakers of Iranian languages.

The well-preserved Tarim mummies with Caucasoid features have been found in the Tarim Basin. The main migration of Turkic peoples occurred between the 5th and 10th centuries, when they spread across most of Central Asia.

The Tang Chinese were defeated by the Arabs at the battle of Talas in , marking the end of the Tang Dynasty's western expansion. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols conquered and ruled the largest contiguous empire in recorded history.

Most of Central Asia fell under the control of the Chagatai Khanate. The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century, as firearms allowed settled peoples to gain control of the region.

Russia , China , and other powers expanded into the region and had captured the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century.

Mongolia remained independent but became a Soviet satellite state. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialization and construction of infrastructure , but also the suppression of local cultures, hundreds of thousands of deaths from failed collectivization programs, and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.

Soviet authorities deported millions of people, including entire nationalities, [32] from western areas of the USSR to Central Asia and Siberia.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union , five countries gained independence. In nearly all the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen.

None of the new republics could be considered functional democracies in the early days of independence, although in recent years Kyrgyzstan , Kazakhstan and Mongolia have made further progress towards more open societies, unlike Uzbekistan , Tajikistan , and Turkmenistan , which have maintained many Soviet-style repressive tactics.

At the crossroads of Asia, shamanistic practices live alongside Buddhism. Thus, Yama , Lord of Death, was revered in Tibet as a spiritual guardian and judge.

Mongolian Buddhism, in particular, was influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. The Qianlong Emperor of Qing China in the 18th century was Tibetan Buddhist and would sometimes travel from Beijing to other cities for personal religious worship.

Central Asia also has an indigenous form of improvisational oral poetry that is over years old. It is principally practiced in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by akyns , lyrical improvisationalists.

They engage in lyrical battles , the aitysh or the alym sabak. The tradition arose out of early bardic oral historians.

They are usually accompanied by a stringed instrument —in Kyrgyzstan, a three-stringed komuz , and in Kazakhstan, a similar two-stringed instrument, the dombra.

Upon his arrival to Khanate of Khiva , Penner shared his photography skills with a local student Khudaybergen Divanov, who later became the founder of Uzbek photography.

Some also learn to sing the Manas , Kyrgyzstan's epic poem those who learn the Manas exclusively but do not improvise are called manaschis.

During Soviet rule, akyn performance was co-opted by the authorities and subsequently declined in popularity.

With the fall of the Soviet Union, it has enjoyed a resurgence, although akyns still do use their art to campaign for political candidates.

A The Washington Post article proposed a similarity between the improvisational art of akyns and modern freestyle rap performed in the West.

As a consequence of Russian colonization, European fine arts — painting, sculpture and graphics — have developed in Central Asia.

The first years of the Soviet regime saw the appearance of modernism, which took inspiration from the Russian avant-garde movement.

Until the s, Central Asian arts had developed along with general tendencies of Soviet arts. In the 90s, arts of the region underwent some significant changes.

Institutionally speaking, some fields of arts were regulated by the birth of the art market, some stayed as representatives of official views, while many were sponsored by international organizations.

The years of — were times for the establishment of contemporary arts. In the region, many important international exhibitions are taking place, Central Asian art is represented in European and American museums, and the Central Asian Pavilion at the Venice Biennale has been organized since Equestrian sports are traditional in Central Asia, with disciplines like endurance riding , buzkashi , dzhigit and kyz kuu.

The traditional game of Buzkashi is played throughout the Central Asian region, the countries sometimes organize Buzkashi competition amongst each other.

Association football is popular across Central Asia. Wrestling is popular across Central Asia, with Kazakhstan having claimed 14 Olympic medals, Uzbekistan seven, and Kyrgyzstan three.

As former Soviet states, Central Asian countries have been successful in gymnastics. Cricket is the most popular sport in Afghanistan.

The Afghanistan national cricket team , first formed in , has claimed wins over Bangladesh, West Indies and Zimbabwe. Since gaining independence in the early s, the Central Asian republics have gradually been moving from a state-controlled economy to a market economy.

The ultimate aim is to emulate the Asian Tigers by becoming the local equivalent, Central Asian snow leopards. However, reform has been deliberately gradual and selective, as governments strive to limit the social cost and ameliorate living standards.

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The Bactrian control of Taxila was disturbed by an intrusion of the Scythians, known in Indian sources as the Shakas who established the Shaka satrap.

They had attacked the kingdom of Bactria and subsequently moved into India.

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